Wednesday, July 22, 2015

When we have our best ideas

Good ideas are trading higher, and more and more. But, contrary to what it may seem, they do not arise when people feel fresh and rested, but when people are exhausted mentally

Creativity is a rising star in the economy that we live. Good ideas to make the most of the digital economy to adapt to it, to create businesses, to survive from day to day or simply to get out of unemployment are needed. It needs to be creative to solve social problems.

When do you think the best ideas arise, including your own? When it is fresh and rested early in the morning after a good night's sleep? After a walk or a session in the gym? What half of your workday, when you are on task?

Contrary to what it seems, the dictates of common sense, the best ideas, the most creative, arise when people are mentally exhausted. This is what says a research paper entitled The role of (dis) inhibition in creativity: Decreased inhibition Improves Idea Generation, published in the journal Cognition specialist.

The authors Remi Radel (University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis), Karen Davranche (University of Aix-Marseille), Marion Fournier (University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis) and Arne Dietrich (American University of Beirut) - asked a group grade students to play a computer game in which they had to discover the direction of an arrow ignoring the arrows around her. A group of students played a version where all the arrows pointing in the same direction; another group did a version in which the arrows pointing in opposite directions.

Then the students made a series of verbal test. In one, they had to propose new uses for common objects such as paper clips and newspapers.

Well, to the surprise of researchers, students played with the version that required more concentration (one in which the arrows pointing in different directions) were more creative than the other group. According to the article, this is because the tasks that required attention exhausted inhibition of participants, that is, the ability of your brain to eliminate awareness of unnecessary information. It is as if the mental exhaustion eliminate all corsets that limit our creativity and allow it to flow freely, unfettered by our brain.

These results fit with research by Charles J. Limb (John Hopkins University), published in the journal PLoS One under the title Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation. Limb studied the brain activity of jazz musicians and rappers and found that when these artists were creating something new, the part of their brains associated with inhibition was calmer.

The implications of these findings are immediate. If you want to be more creative, we must reduce one's inhibitions, for example, performing tasks requiring alertness, such as crossword puzzles. Or take advantage when they get home after a hard day's work and put to work the brain doing something creative.

Monday, July 6, 2015

Teamwork increases motivation and reduces stress

HR experts say that a good group is capable of generating and strengthening enthusiasm, cohesion and job satisfaction

The advantages of teamwork are unquestionable and produced very positive results, especially for businesses. Proof of this is the increasingly more common dynamic group preparing experts selection when choosing your ideal candidate.

"A team of well trained and coordinated work have a positive impact not only on the results of the organization but also to employees. HR experts say that a good group is capable of generating and strengthening enthusiasm, cohesion and job satisfaction. No But nobody says it an easy task to achieve it must be good atmosphere, affinity and good labor relations "explains which analyzes the main aspect of group work:

Stimulates creativity and better ideas are generated: brainstorming or "brainstorming" is a technique of group work that facilitates the emergence of new ideas in order to solve a problem or issue. It is certainly a very efficient and very common innovation when taking strategic decisions tool.

Sum of talents: the integration of different skills, abilities, attitudes, experiences and views complement leading to better results than if it had developed individually.

It increases motivation, commitment and decreases stress: working independently, the workload will always be greater and the responsibility will fall on one person. However, when working as a team, in moments of failure you will always find someone to inject energy to the group as well go ahead and encourage others.

Identifies the strengths and weaknesses: each team member employee is assigned a role that must be met and that corresponds to what you do best.

Best decisions are taken: to become visible the various viewpoints consensus on what to do is clear more reinforced 
Improves tolerance and respect: the whole group should consider the different perspectives and respect the views of others to have thus a comprehensive vision of the research.

"Teaming does not mean all work with all tasks, rather the contrary. Each person should have a specific role and responsibility This is very important to maintain a good working environment and avoid conflicts, as if commit an error, identify them individually to see how they failed so we can correct it, "explains Javier Caparros.

When a team does not perform well, it is because there is a point that should be reviewed and improved. To find out what is happening is necessary to make a thorough diagnosis and analyze certain situations such as:

We find among the members of the group of aggressive symptoms, irony, hostility or indifference in attitudes; some components are physically absent without any reason or no attention to the issues of debate; the disagreement is constant with respect to the opinions of others; the goals and objectives individually are awarded; There segregaciónde division of the group or any of its members; discussions are excessive and intense; there is a lack of cooperation and deterrent for others continue to work; We detect a constant negative attitude.

In this regard, Javier Caparrós added that "we can always find people who represent an obstacle when working together. If a negative person, continually waste time or absent, inefficient, arrogant exists in the group, and / or that always acts against the head, it is necessary to tackle and work immediately on all these harmful behaviors that have this guy because they can harm the environment and generate conflicts with the rest of the group. "

Saturday, July 4, 2015

Ten Highest Paying Jobs Without College

In many cases, the career speaks louder than the curriculum itself

In many cases, companies seek specific profiles for areas that do not need to study four years of career to be a professional in that area. Certainly, in many cases, the career speaks louder than the curriculum itself. There are many professionals in the world succeeding without having college. They are experts in their field and is unsurpassed by that they themselves, being self-taught, have been able to be the best. There is a long list of jobs without a college career that does not have to be underpaid, quite the opposite: charge more than they already have many career. The Infojobs site has compiled a list of ten of the best jobs that do not require a university degree.

Ruby On Rails is a programming language in high demand by companies. There are few professionals dedicated to this environment as it is one of the most difficult to learn, but in turn, is the most versatile. This programming language is overlooked in many of the universities. No specific college career to learn Ruby On Rails. It is a language that is learned through experience, reading and interest. In addition, Ruby On Rails developers are the most popular and best paid now, so it's a job to be taken into account.

The border between the web designer and developer Backend. There is no college career to study Front End. It is the limbo between those who are dedicated to creating all the creativity of web pages already engaged to do all that background. These are people who must understand both the design and development, it is therefore very difficult to find these profiles in the market, and therefore are highly paid because of their scarcity.


Leaving aside the digital side, we go with one of those professions forever. The dental technician is in charge of making all the molds, devices and implants need to clean the mouth of patients of dentists. A dentist needs a dental technician because otherwise it could not finish the work. For dental technician need not study at the university, it is only necessary to study a training module. A dental technician can earn around 3,000 euros a month having at least two dentists customers. If you have more, that figure is multiplied.

Following in the health sector, we find those who are responsible for doing the work of radiographs. Many think they are the doctors themselves who are responsible for us radiographs, but the reality is that makes a technician who has studied a training of 1-2 years. Private clinics are often the main customers and also more and more people go to medical checkups, which include x-rays. A radiology technician can earn from 60,000 per year.

To hold events do not need a college degree. In events it is what it takes to be an organized person, and above all, you know leave any situation unscathed. Usually resolute people. The key to the success of the event organizer is in knowing how to create a good customer base. With all this, you will make money if you dedicate to the organization of events.

The guild's hated by his strikes: air traffic controllers. Needless to study aeronautical engineering for air traffic controller. Just need to prepare for the exam gives you the title of driver training course prior 18 months, and overcome the medical and language tests required by civil aviation. The minimum salary of an air traffic controller is 9,000 euros gross per month and can range up to 21,000 euros gross monthly

PRIVATE DETECTIVEAlthough it seems that Sherlock Holmes is coming to see us, the profession of private detective exists and is very well paid. It is a profession that depends largely on customers and word of mouth, but once started your foray into the world, the chances of success are many. No one preset rates at which stick so you can be yourself which mark your fee. A profession in which there are no timetables, but on the other hand is very well paid is one of those jobs without career that arise.

SEO? What is that? If I say that is the way Google ranks websites, things change a bit. Currently, there is no specific college career in which he teaches SEO positioning mechanisms optimize for search engines, but really, is a profession that is still very much in demand as all websites want to be in first position. It's one of those jobs without paying career that require effort and proactivity on the part of these professionals to be good in your area. Read manuals and keep up with updates made by search engines.

There is no need for a specific college career to engaging in the commercial world. Simply having people skills and know how to treat people to persuade them about your product. Commercial largely depend on their commissions to close the month with good numbers on the payroll.

Once you've crossed one on the street. Surveyors are responsible for making an expertise to define the border of the property and using the topography to help collect data from measurements that have been made. To do this, you need to study a year and opposition as practice as surveyor is part of the civil service.

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Engineering and Health Sciences degrees have better employment opportunities

Women are the majority in all branches except for Engineering and Architecture, groups with higher contribution base and number of permanent contracts. Qualifications with the highest percentage of self-employed are Health Sciences, according to the Social Security affiliation. The Engineering and Health Sciences have the highest occupancy rates in jobs commensurate with their training.

The major concern of a new graduate is unable to work in the field that has devoted years of study and effort. The qualifications that better employment recorded in 2014 and in the previous three years, according to data from the Social Security affiliation analyzed by the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), were Computer Engineering (82%), Chemical Engineering and Computer engineering (75.5%). They also emphasize the degrees in Medicine (83%), Pharmacy, Mathematics, Actuarial Science and Finance (83%) and bachelor's degrees in Labour Sciences (75.6%). In the first cycle studies are head the diplomas in speech therapy (80%) Optometry (86%), Statistics (86%) and Master Specialty in Foreign (81%) Language, among others. It also stresses that the most graduates are women (64.7% versus 32.4% of men) in all branches of knowledge, except in engineering and architecture (69.3% of men compared to 30.7% of women), although it is detected, however, that men are the majority in the group with the highest contribution base, and the difference in this section in favor of men is more pronounced precisely in Engineering and Architecture. The Engineering and Health Sciences have the highest occupancy rates in jobs commensurate with their training By type of contract, qualifications with the highest percentage of self-employed belong to Health Sciences , while the group of Engineering and Architecture hosts the largest percentage of members with permanent contracts and higher salary levels, which are also the qualifications Health Sciences. In both cases there are no differences by sex. Graduates in the field of Health Sciences have the best rate of affiliation by contribution group, followed by the branches of Engineering and Science, ie, which have higher occupancy percentages of jobs commensurate with their training .

The data have been prepared by the Statistics Department of the UCM to the Social Council of the University and come from the first study Labour insertion of university graduates. The prospect of membership in the Social Security , the result of an agreement between the General Secretariat of Universities, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and the Conference of Social Councils of Spanish Universities and has been compiled from membership data Social Security. To obtain this information was followed up, between 2010 and 2014, the employment of graduates of promotion 2009-2010 nationwide.

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

University of Glasgow school internship scholarships

The Graduate college of the school of Arts, University of Glasgow, announces up to 9 new school Internship Scholarships for PhD students registering in 2012/13, providing a fee waiver at Home/EU rate and a £6000 internship stipend every year. 

Eligibility: the school Internship Scholarships are for Home/EU/international students commencing PhD study within the school of Arts in 2012/13. International candidates ought to note that the fee waiver is for the Home/EU rate (£3828 every year in 2012/13). The international fee for PhD study is £12,250 every year. 

In order to be thought of for a university Internship Scholarship, you want to are offered an area on a PhD programme among the school of Arts, and should be commencing study in 2012/13. Students commencing different programmes of analysis (eg MRes, MLitt, MPhil) don't seem to be eligible. 

You must not be holding another full scholarship for the 2012/13 tutorial session, however those in receipt of partial scholarships could apply. 

How to apply: All students commencing PhD study in 2012/13 wishing to be thought of for an internship scholarship ought to scan the internship data obtainable at 

The Internship Scholarship kind, with full directions, may be downloaded from Students commencing study in 2012/13, who have already submitted an application for scholarships, might need to submit an extra application to the current new theme. 

Applications are ranked by college committees and then thought of by the school Scholarships Committee. The scholarship covers the payment of annual fees on to the university, at the Home/EU rate, up to 3 years' full-time, professional rata (5 years) part-time. The scholarship provides an internship bursary of £6,000 every year, up to 3 years full-time, professional rata (5 years) part-time. 

Deadline: Scholarship applications should be submitted by April thirty. solely applications that are totally processed and students offered admission to PhD study on a conditional or unconditional basis are going to be thought of for a scholarship. candidates ought to expect to listen to regarding the result of the competition by early June. Internship Opportunities: the school of Arts operates 3 doctoral internship scholarship schemes - school Teaching Internship Scholarship, school analysis Internship Scholarship and school Administration Internship Scholarship. Students awarded an Internship Scholarship are expected to undertake a mean of 3 hours' work expertise per week. Over the life time of their award, students could also be asked to occupy totally different internship schemes.

Sunday, December 4, 2011

European aid to relocate unemployed

Eight blocks to extend until 2013 the European aid to relocate unemployed

Germany, United Kingdom, Holland, Denmark, among others, oppose the expansion.
Were intended to aid the relocation of unemployed victims of the crisis.
Spain is the country that European fund resources has received since 2008.

A blocking minority consisting of eight member states - Germany, UK, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Latvia - have kept extending until 2013 the European aid to relocate unemployed who have been dismissed as a result of the crisis.

The European Union has a Fund Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF) to support the process of retraining of unemployed victims of offshoring , although since 2010 and as consequence of the economic crisis where new assumptions related to the impact of the crisis that are applicable until the end of this year.

The European employment ministers discussed the issue at a meeting in Brussels during a session in which they have come to negotiate up to four proposals for the commitment to try to bridge the gaps, but none have succeeded.

With this decision the 27 felled the expansion of applications of the fund during 2012 and 2013, so it will not be eligible to cases of crisis and closes the door to change it until 2014, when it begins a new financial year.

Brussels was in favor of extending to 2012 and 2013 the possibility that countries could use the fund to co-finance job layoffs that have not been caused by the relocation but by the impact of the economic crisis.

Spain, many injured

Spain, a country that more resources EGF has received since its creation in 2008, is among the Member States "clearly support this expansion" , according to diplomatic sources, because the extension has been applied the last two years has presented more of records.

Spain has received more than 35 million since 2008 to help find employment to 9,600 fired According to the European Parliament, the Spanish authorities have obtained more than 35 million euros since 2008 aimed at training and help finding jobs for laid off 9,600 people in various sectors.

Holland , one of the countries that have received grants from this fund, remains opposed to allowing the impact of the crisis to remain in 2012 and 2013 reason to qualify for this subsidy.

Netherlands, Germany and the UK form the core of countries that put pressure on European Union Community contain spending in line with the ajuestes who are taking the 27 nationwide

Graphic Process Guide

The processes in printing are several very complex, which is why designers graphics we know from start to finish to achieve our objective , that of properly communicate any message.

The knowledge of these processes does not imply a mastery of them, however as we know and understand better, the better decisions we make about the same and this is reflected in the results you get.

The postpress is the last process of production after printing, and includes all the finishing processes, manipulated, joining pieces and packaging.

Knowing all these processes we may be able to choose correctly between the different types of paper that exist and determine the method most appropriate print and the type of finishes that will give our printed, according to our budget and we should give the diffusion our message.

General Objective
At the end of the course the student will differentiate the types of finishes that are carried out within the postpress process and select the most appropriate in accordance with the requirements of presentation and quality of the project graph to make.

Topic 1.

The process of design and its relationship with the postpress

1.1 Features and materials for the production of a project best graphic design .

1.2 Selection of the system of printing.

1.3 Selection of substrates and inks.

1.3.1 Substrates

1.3.2 Role

1.3.3 Other media

1.3.4 Inks

1.3.5 Other materials

1.4 Selection of finishes.

1.5 Quality control of products printed.

Learning Objective
At the end of the topic the student will evaluate the importance of all the separate elements of the postpress stage that must be considered within a graphic production process.

The printing process can be divided into the following 4 stages:

- Design Phase

- Pre-press stage

- Stage of production or release .

- Stage or post press finishing

The responsibility of the graphic designer is not limited only to contribute to aesthetics and creativity in solving a problem of communication , you must know all the tools you have at your fingertips, the limitations and scope with each, and the costs and time it takes at each step, with this knowledge, the designer will be able to provide an adequate solution to every problem of communication that comes your way. Summarizing we can say that the graphic designer's responsibility starts when you decide to solve the problem that has been proposed, and ends, literally, having the solution thereof in his hands, ie to have the product finished graphic. And it must respond to the expectations that were raised from the outset in terms of quality, cost and communication of the message.

Of the four stages that a form is submitted, it is only the first in the design, where it enters play our creativity and in which we intervene directly in the other three come into play and our knowledge of the intervene indirectly by monitoring since these stages are usually performed by third parties.

Definition of postpress

The printing process does not end when the paper comes with the image printed. After that still need to make all finishes to the left printed as planned These finishes can be many and varied cuts, folds, elevations, bindings, coatings, laminates, pierced, hot-stamping, etc.. all these processes are called postpress. In short we can define the set of postpress processes followed after printing, so that our form is completed and ready for use in communicating a message.

1.1 Features and materials for optimal production of a graphic design project
It is equally important to know that you are printing with which materials and the printing system to be used.

The same original, printed on different paper types with different inks and other printing system can give opposite results. You need paper and ink set which will be specified for a particular print, to work well with both the print system to be used, as with the aesthetic result you are looking for in print.

1.2 Selection of the printing system
The following explains the six systems most important print, operation and method of work .

It also marks a relation between the printing system, the quality it offers and its use, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Printing systems are:

1. Offset (sheets)

It is an indirect printing process in which the shape containing the picture (board) does not touch the media, but that transfers the image to another cylinder ( rubber ) print. This printing system is ideal for medium run lengths, ie from 1.000 copies in sizes from letter to eight trades.

1.A Offset (rotary)

The printing system is equal to the specifications, the difference is the greater speed of printing, the paper comes in rolls. A rotating coil is mainly divided into five parts: carrier coils, drives printers , superstructure, folding, conditioning bands.

Types of rotary. Presses for newspaper / press printing are intended for daily or weekly press, characterized both by its large paging , high-speed runs and need of completion. Most of these machines include finishing units, folding and cutting.

2. Typography

The typography is to deposit the ink on a printing element etched in relief and back, to apply, then a sheet of paper. The pressure exerted on this sheet will allow the ink deposited on it. The level difference created by the engraving prevents the ink reaches the gaps.

In this process involved printing the paper machine, type or print and ink. This type of machine is used to Suajes, pleco and folio.

3. Flexography

Flexography is a variant of type. It is printed on presses with rubber photopolymer plates or cylindrical plastic , bearing the image in relief. Very fluid inks. Also called aniline printing.

It is used to continuously print jobs, especially in flexible plastic film holders for product packaging and adhesive labels for packaging chain.

4. Serigraphy

It consists of a fabric stretched over a framework in which there are areas without blocking where the ink will seep up to the media. The other areas will be covered to keep the ink will not be missed. This printing process involves:

- The substrate (paper, plastic, cardboard) of different thicknesses

- Silk-screen display

- The standard

- The machine

- The ink.

The substrate can be any type, flat and even irregular volume .

5. Gravure (cylinder)

Is a cylinder of steel covered with a thick layer of copper smooth, in which, by means of gravure system or electronic recording, it records the negative image buried in the copper layer. Cavities will be formed and which will endure the ink and paper deposited by pressure.

Huecográfica ink is liquid and contains a large amount of solvent that evaporates quickly and leaves the dry pigment on paper. To speed up the drying process, the paper web, after every body, passes through areas of air or infrared heat.

This printing system is used for large-circulation magazines that require high image quality, since it is able to maintain a stable colored all controlled circulation publication. It is also used for printing plastic and flexible packaging products for food .

The high cost of preparation, is amortized over the printing speed and print quality. This system because it is rotating, also known as rotogravure.

1.3 Selection of substrates and inks
It is important that we take into account the type of substrates and inks used in the production of a graphic, because sometimes these will determine what type of finish we can use it.

1.3.1 Substrates

The substrate is the surface to be printed. It is usually paper, but can be any other material, from plastic films or metal to fabric. The type of substrate used directly affects the final quality of print. In fact, substrates and semiflexible smooth finish, good consistency on the surface, neutral, with appropriate binders, fine porosity and with adequate moisture, allow the best prints. Be careful to choose a suitable printing system to the substrate you want to use. Remember that not everyone has the same capabilities.

1.3.2 Role

Could we imagine a world without paper? Were there now books , magazines, newspapers, if they had not invented the paper? What would not the role of school activity, storage, transport and storage of food or other goods, work in an office , the health staff ? The great development of the paper is due, firstly, the relationship value / price that has allowed prevail over other materials in many applications.

Throughout the centuries, the role has proven to be compatible with the technical advances that have been linked to the development of new paper products: offset paper, paper for fax , photocopier paper, continuous paper for computer , etc.. The paper is therefore perfectly adapted to technical progress (speed of the machines, presses, packaging) and new uses (fax, beverages, food use toilet paper, etc.)..

The printing paper is today an important support and supply vehicle information and advertising . Advances in transmission electronics of data have not reduced, but on the contrary, have increased their use.

Versatility of use

The International Pulp and Paper Directory has recorded a total of 457 varieties of paper. With hundreds of end uses, paper satisfies communications needs, cultural, educational, artistic, hygienic, health, distribution , storage and transportation of all types of goods and, according to them, the product is designed to meet certain requirements texture, strength , softness, absorption, etc..

In the case of paper, there are several points to be taken into account when choosing:

1. Weight, ie, the thickness of the paper. It is measured in g/m2 or points.

2. The color of the paper, since it will affect all other colors , both in tone and brilliance.

3. The finish of the paper, ie the surface can have coatings or textures, can be shiny or matte.


On its surface, we can classify basically paper and cardboard covered, not covered and embossed or textured. For its size can be classified in paper, paperboard and cardboard.

Paper characteristics

The print quality of paper depends on the following physical and chemical characteristics:

• Physical characteristics

- Weight or Size , weight is measured in g/m2 and the size is measured in points. One point is equal to 0.001 to 0.025 in. or mm.

The compressible blankets have proven a valuable resource in the printing of paper slightly out of calibration, maintaining sharpness, smoothness, strength and cleanliness. Agree that the caliber of the papers is as uniform as possible, as poorly calibrated papers originate defective prints.

- Porosity is the number of holes per unit area which presents the role.

Highly porous papers absorb ink printed film and although it favors the drying, the overall appearance of the form may be affected. Remember that paper is a highly porous material, the air content of common stock ranges from 50% to 70%.

- Consistency in its surface , is the degree of detachment from the paper lint.

Papers tend to lack consistency or shredding lint easily during the printing process, often forcing condition inks, reducing its detrimental mordencia concentration.

- absolute humidity is the amount of water considered in percentage points is contained in the paper.

The elongation or contraction experienced by the papers by absorption or water loss is intrinsic to its constitution . Careful studies have shown that the absolute humidity lithographic appropriate roles is between 7% and 8%, but depends on the type of paper and printing process. For stability to preserve its stacks of paper or cardboard with original covers before going to print.

- wrinkles and ripples . If the paper has a serious problem of wrinkles or ripples, not be printed, as a wrinkled paper is not acceptable. Sometimes the paper is wrinkled at the time of print and must find a reason to avoid this problem. Generally moisture differences are the cause of undulations, so you have to put the paper to eliminate the problem.

- Absorption or penetration , is the migration of the ink through the fibers and pores of the paper immediately after printing.

Highly absorbent papers are not usually appropriate for a good offset printing. In anticipation of this, no inks that have made to preserve the printed film on the substrate surface, preventing penetration.

- Flexibility and hardness , is the consistency that has the role in its formation.

Very hard papers are more difficult to print on offset with a suitable quality for printing so that the papers should be used compressible blankets and special inks.

- Address of the fibers . In its initial development roles consist of a dispersed fiber 2% to 98% water. Upon arrival to the band (felt fabric), the fibers will lose water and are moving in the direction of making paper. In sheet-fed presses or sheet, the orientation of the fibers must be parallel to the axes of the unit printer . To determine the direction of the fibers of the paper takes a tear sheet and parallel to one side. Then another cut is torn but perpendicular to the first, the cut that follows a straight line represents the direction of the fibers, while the other will cut zigzag.

The direction of the fibers affects where they go to make bends, because if they are perpendicular to the fiber direction, may not be well marked. And if you plan to bind, it should be fiber direction parallel to the bound

- Tensile strength , is the opposition that has cut the paper when subjected to two opposing forces. Roles of low tensile strength do not support the traction of the forceps and tear.

- Delamination is the tendency for some paper or paperboard, to separate into layers or form bubbles at the time of printing.

This problem may be in paper or low-quality cards that contain a high moisture content.

- Double Sided , differences between the two sides or sides of the paper: cloth and felt, are important through their influence on other properties of paper. As a general rule, the brightness and the smoothness of the two sides is different, so does the tone or intensity of color can be different, because most dyes have higher affinity for the fine and charges, which are in greater concentration in the side felt. The two sides behave differently during printing, so it is important to identify them before starting work.

Identification of the sides

The fabric side is generally rougher than the felt side, due to the mark it leaves the forming fabric of the paper machine, as it is generally open or porous fabric side and closed with a texture side felt fine. Usually this side is printed. The difference in texture between the sides and felt fabric usually noticeable to the naked eye, so folding paper can be identified, directly comparing the two surfaces. On paper with watermark, you can tell because the watermark is usually read by the hand felt.

- Bulk density and apparent, the density of the paper is probably the property most important. Provides information about the structure of the sheet and is related to other properties of paper, especially: porosity, stiffness, hardness and strength, but in fact affects all optical and physical properties except basis weight. It also affects the absorption and ease of printing.

The apparent density of paper is affected by many factors, including: the number of joints between fibers, which depend on the diameter and flexibility of the fibers, the pressing of the wet sheet, the amount of glucose , the presence of materials that fill the gaps on the sheet, and so on. The density of paper or cardboard is its weight per unit volume.

The specific volume or bulk is the reciprocal of the density property, or the volume in cm 3 of a gram of paper. In some cases it is customary to use bulk, when dealing with bulky paperwork, but can be considered equivalent in bulk density and what affects one also applies to the other. This property is important for manufacturers of books because if there are variations of consideration, books will have different thickness, causing problems in their binding. It is also an important property in absorbent paper and pancakes (fluffy roles, such as crepe paper).

- Stiffness is the ability of paper and paperboard or cardboard to prevent deformation when subjected to stress. However, the stiffness is an extremely important property for many uses of cardboard or paper, so that in some cases it is desirable that this is high, such as paper and cardboard for printing or boxes. In contrast to other uses such as facial tissue, requires that the stiffness is very low.

- Paper Smoothness is a property that affects both the appearance and functionality of the paper. From the point of view of printing paper, refers to the perfection of the surface of a paper and to the extent that uniformity resembles the surface of a glass plane. It is said that the paper has a smooth or rough texture, meaning that surface irregularities are small or large. The industry 's role is often called satin finish or the quality of the paper surface or smooth.

The roles are very distinct in their relative smoothness, since smoothness depends on other properties of the paper. The short fibers produce a smoother paper than long fibers. The preparation of the paste and how they are distributed to form the paper fibers in the fabric of the machine, have great influence on the formation and smoothness. Uneven training reduces the smoothness and the basis weight increases.

A good flatness requires the absence of gaps between fibers and fillers, or be free from: brands of cloth or felt, fiber balls, foreign materials and battered areas on the paper.

The appearance of a sheet of paper is determined not only by their physical characteristics stated above, the combination of their optical properties.

- Opacity or transparency.

- Brightness and Color

- Brightness

- Opacity is the property that holds the paper to allow or disallow the passage of light through it.

Opacity will also affect the ability of paper to absorb ink from one side without noticing the other.

To make the paper suitable for printing are considered in terms of opacity is required opacity is 90% to 92%, at least, although there may be exceptions such as vegetables (Opaline).

- Whiteness , is the ability to reflect the role of white light falling on it, and especially the uniformity in reflectance.

- Brightness, is the ability of a paper to reflect light falling on it, ie its ability to mirror, we must be careful not to be confused with whiteness.

- Refined and squaring . It is very important that the papers reach well refined and square cut to print on sheet-fed presses, because if you make the refined dull or nicked blade on the guillotine, or jagged vertical bar at the outlet of the larks ( in the manufacture of paper) will generate a lot of fluff. Therefore, it is desirable that the papers reach well refined, cut square and free of kaolin or charges.

• Chemical Characteristics

- acidity or alkalinity, is the nature acidic, neutral or alkaline paper presents the printable side, ie, its value pH . The pH of the paper affects the drying of the inks, because for every unit increase in the pH of the solution or the surface of the paper, doubles the time of drying of the inks. Papers slightly alkaline neutral on its surface, excellent for printing.